As a main source of plant protein, soybean has been widely accepted and used globally for hundreds of years. Soy peptide is one of the by-products during the industrial processing cycle of soybean products manufacturing. The product is known for its active functions in physical fatigue reduction, skin maintenance, weight loss, brain health and much more. It’s been more selectable and preferable by many food manufactures because it’s a stable, multifunctional, cost effective ingredient in a multi-functional food area. With the growth of consumption demand for functional foods, the higher acceptance and wider application field is only a matter of time.
Shansong Biological’s soy peptide is produced through our exclusive enzyme digestion technology, which is low in free amino acid content and high in easily absorbable di- and tripeptides. The technology also allows for the reduction of bitterness and umami originated in peptides. The purity of Shansong’s soy peptide powder can reach 90% which satisfies most industrial applications.
WHAT IS SOY PEPTIDE?
Soy peptide is a large molecule protein. It is extracted by the biotechnological enzyme into a small fragment amino acid. Soy peptide contains 22 amino acids, including nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body.
Peptides are known as intermediate products of protein digestion. The structure of peptides are two or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Compared to an amino acid, the faster absorption of peptide in the human body is brought by a peptide transporter which is found in the small intestine and work to deliver di- and tripeptides into cells. While amino acids are absorbed one by one via amino acid transporters, di- and tripeptides are absorbed in peptide form using a peptide transport system. A peptide transporter is also suitable for delivering numerous amino acids equally unlike the amino acid transporter. The capability of absorption remains positive and intact even when the intestinal mucosa has been compromised by certain illness. Thus, peptides are considered a more effective nitrogen source than amino acids in the elemental diet.
In recent years, there are reports of soy-derived bioactive peptides being transported into the blood without undergoing digestion into amino acids in the intestinal tract. Thus, the physiological functions of soy peptide shown in the following context would be not only due to the absorbability but also bioactive peptides from soy peptide or their combined effect (Figure 1).
THE EFFECT OF SOY PEPTIDE ON MUSCLE
SOY PEPTIDE INTAKE REDUCES PHYSICAL FATIGUE
With all of our everyday movements, “muscular fatigue” or “physical fatigue” is a familiar physiological phenomenon. One type of muscular fatigue which we experience quite frequently is known as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The cause of DOMS is thought to be the subtle damage to muscle fibers. This damage can be detected by measuring the elevation of blood creatine kinase (CK) activity. Researchers found that soy peptide intake gives a significant reduction of CK value in human beings.
Research shows changes in blood CK activity relative to the base line at 30 min and 18 hours after squat exercises in a group of 16 young male subjects without regular exercise habits. Results indicated the changes in blood creatine kinase activity after intake of soy protein and soy peptide respectively, compared with a placebo applied with no nitrogen source. Soy protein or soy peptide was taken immediately after exercise. From the result, it indicates the soy peptide intake group significantly alleviated on muscle damage. It also shows the effect of reducing physical fatigue by soy peptide was higher than that of soy protein by more than 50%.
Sport/energy enhancing beverages and foods are becoming more popular and easy to find on the shelf. With the demand and trend of a healthier and more efficient dietary consumption, the functional characteristic of soy peptide could ensure extraordinary performance in wide applications even in nutritional food, infant food and more.
SOY PEPTIDE’S EFFECTS ON WEIGHT LOSS
Our weight is determined by the balance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. Calories are taken in by food and drink, while energy expenditure occurs in three categories: “basal metabolism,” “consumption through exercise, etc.” and “diet-induced thermogenesis.” “Basal metabolism” is considered as the largest factor in energy expenditure in an ordinary individual. Research shows that soy peptide intake has a positive result to raise basal metabolism.
SOY PEPTIDE TO RAISE BASAL METABOLISM
Basal metabolism requires bulk calorie consumption in ordinary people and declines in a low-energy diet. However, the research shows a significant recovery with soy peptide supplementation and soy peptide can be considered as an ideal source for the purpose of losing weight. It helps to increase basal metabolism and post-mealtime calorie consumption, and eventually promotes fat combustion in the human body.
SOY PEPTIDE AS BRAIN FOOD
In recent years, some researchers have revealed that soy peptide has positive effects on brain function which are collectively termed “brain food.”
THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SOY PEPTIDE ON BRAIN NEURONS
Soy peptide intake helps to elevate the expression of neurotrophic factors, thereby assisting to alleviate the decline of cognitive function with aging. In addition, some reports show that soy peptide intake increased neuromodulatory amino acids having a positive effect on neural transmitters and their receptors, and increased some amino acids which support recovery from brain damage. In summary, the high absorbability of soy peptide can contribute to part of brain function improvement.
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SOY PEPTIDE INTAKE ON HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTION IN YOUNG PEOPLE
One study investigated the effects of dietary soy peptide supplementation on higher brain function in young healthy people (age 20-22). Daily supplementation of soy peptide for two weeks improved primarily in memory function and concentration. The soy peptide group significantly increased the rate of correct answers compared to the placebo group on the calculation task (repetitive single-digit addition). This result suggests that soy peptide intake properly maintains a certain brain function for processing long-term simple cognitive tasks without losing concentration.
NATURALLY BEAUTIFUL SKIN BY SOY PEPTIDE
EFFECTS OF SOY PEPTIDE INTAKE ON ELASTICITY AND MOISTURE RETENTION OF SKIN
There is another outstanding function of soy peptide for cosmetic applications; soy peptide results have a positive impact on elasticity and moisture retention of skin.
The effects of soy peptide intake on skin health was reported in a study using ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mouse. The test feeds consisted of control of water (normal without UV irradiation), 20% soy peptide solution versus 20% collagen peptide solution with UV irradiation respectively for 25 consecutive days. The improvements of water content of stratum corneum and skin viscoelasticity were observed by the peptide solution groups.
These effects were especially notable in the soy peptide group rather than in collagen peptide. Moreover, skin viscoelasticity index was measured in R7 which shows significantly higher in the soy peptide group than the water group. Skin morphology photographs after administration also showed that soy peptide intake alleviated UV-induced skin damage. On the other hand, anti-oxidative peptides derived from soy peptide were found and showed synergic effects with non-peptide antioxidants. It is possible that anti-oxidative peptides from soy peptide contribute to alleviation of skin damage caused by UV and oxidation.
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